The type of soil in the district, which is predominantly a rainfed tract, are 47% sandy loams (chalka), 44% of loamy sands (Dubba) soils and 9% are black soils.  The black cotton soils occupy land along the banks of river Musi along with margin of the sedimentary formations on the banks of river Krishna and other isolated patches.  The PH content of the soils in the district is generally found to be weak alkaline and also poor in Nitrogen content.

The district is covered by river Krishna, Musi, Palair, Peddavagu, Dindi, Kanagal and Halia.  Among these rivers, Krishna River is the only perennial river.  Nagarjunasagar is the major irrigation project benefiting Nidamanur, Miryalaguda, Huzurnagar, Kodad and Anumula, Thripuraram, Neredicherla, Garidepally, Mattampally, Mellacheruvu, Nadigudem, Munagala, Chilukuru, Penpahad Mandals with a command area of 1,23,987 ha.   The other big projects are Musi, Puttamgandi, Vemuluri & Dindi with command areas of 16,923 ha and 5,061 ha. Respectively.  Out of the 59 Mandals of the district, 4 Mandals have been identified as Over Exploited, 8 Mandals as Critical and 22 Mandals as Semi-critical.

Agriculture occupies an important place in the district’s economy, which is the most important occupation and paddy, cotton, chillies and groundnut are the main crops grown in the district.  The net area sown forms 43.91% of the total geographical area during the year 2005-06. 

Population: The district has a population of 32.48 lakh of which 50.9% are males and 49.1% females.  It has a population density of 230 per Sq.KM.  The population of the ST as per 2001 census was 3.23 lakh accounting for 9.9% of the total population of the district.  The Modified Area Development Approach (MADA) is under implementation in identified (127) villages covering 18 pockets in 22 Mandals to improve the economic conditions of the tribal who are below poverty line providing various economic support schemes financed on 50% subsidy, 30% bank loan and 20% margin money pattern.

Drought Prone Areas: Nalgonda District is considered as one of the Drought Prone Districts in the country and one among 12 DPAP districts in the State.  9 blocks covering 35 Mandals (710 villages) are declared as DPAP blocks.  The blocks are Deverakonda, Chinthapally, Munugode, Ramannapet, Nakrekal, Nalgonda, Mothkur, Suryapet and Thungathurthy.

Banking Network : There are 13 commercial banks operating in the district of which 11 are Nationalised banks (111 branches) and 2 private sector banks.  Apart from these, Andhra Pradesh Grameena Vikas Bank (76 branches), Nalgonda DCCB (23 branches) and APSFC are functioning in the district and catering to the credit needs of the district.  There are 111 Primary Agricultural Credit Societies and 555 other Cooperative societies to serve Weavers, Sheep rearers, Fishermen, Employees, Toddy tapers, Marketing, Labor Contract, Industrial societies etc., functioning in the district.  Further there are three urban cooperative banks functioning in the district. 

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